U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for January 1-15, 2015

Market/Commercialization Information
DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FORUM
U.S. DOE, Office of Acquisition and Project Management, Washington, DC.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4827, Solicitation EM_BUSINESS_FORUM-3-4-2015

The Office of Environmental Management Business Opportunity Forum is an outreach event for vendors and contractors to enable participation in a dialogue on ongoing and upcoming business opportunities in DOE's Environmental Management Program. The next event will be held March 4, 2015, from 1-3 PM in the large ground floor auditorium in the Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC. There is no charge to attend, but preregistration by February 26, 2015, is a must. To provide companies an opportunity to voice individual views openly with DOE, separate company appointments in 15-minute increments will be available in conjunction with the event. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DOE/PAM/HQ/EM_BUSINESS_FORUM-3-4-2015/listing.html


BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT FOR INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR REDUCING VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Department of the Air Force, AFICA-CONUS, AFCEC/CZ, Joint Base-Lackland, Texas.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4828, Solicitation AFCECBAA-15-001, 2015

This solicitation constitutes a Broad Agency Announcement for the Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC), Environmental Directorate (CZ) to seek proposals that demonstrate and validate innovative, sustainable, and cost-effective environmental technologies and methodologies for restoration and compliance concerns. This solicitation is not to test theoretical concepts or technologies and methodologies that currently exist solely in a laboratory R&D phase or that have already been tested and validated multiple times in the field (i.e., a service). The areas of need for this announcement are (1) remedial technologies for ethylene dibromide (EDB) cleanup at Kirtland AFB; (2) determination of preferential pathways for complex sites; (3) wastewater sensor technology to comply with Clean Water Act; (4) natural resources monitoring plan; (5) in-vessel composting; (6) field methods for development of source emission factors; (7) new source review/prevention of significant deterioration procedures; and (8) hazardous air pollutant input development and analysis for stationary sources. This requirement is restricted to U.S. organizations. The AFCEC BAA is a two-step process: Phase I - Submit a BAA PDF form; Phase II - If invited, submit a full proposal that details the technology, demonstration and validation approach, and costs for the proposed effort. The anticipated award of AFCECBAA-15-001 is Fiscal Year 2015, 4th Quarter. Phase I submittals are due by 4:00 PM CST, March 10, 2015. https://www.fbo.gov/notices/b73428efa6b0c7c3ad87adca2b27afc1


ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SERVICES WITHIN THE WESTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AND/OR PORTIONS OF US EPA REGIONS 6, 8, OR 9
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, San Francisco, CA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4829, Solicitation W912P7-15-T-0005, 2015

This announcement is a sources-sought notice for market research to determine the availability of firms to support collection of data and documentation of Superfund support work in EPA Region 9 and cooperating jurisdictions. All interested firms should notify this office by 5:00 PM PT, March 11, 2015, in a written response limited to 10 pages. Responses will be used to determine the appropriate acquisition strategy for a potential future acquisition. The NAICS Code is 562910, with a small business size of 500 employees. The duration of the project is 5 years (Base plus 4 option years). IDIQ environmental remediation services contracts will provide the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers the capabilities of supporting a wide variety of services, such as planning, support, execution, legal support, and achieving approval for hazard ranking score (HRS) packages. HRS packages are the culmination of the assessment process for sites that proceed to National Priorities List status. Qualified contractors shall have experience in HRS and have successfully completed an HRS (through listing) with Region 9 within the last 10 years. Release of the solicitation is anticipated on or after March 26, 2015. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACAW07/W912P7-15-T-0005/listing.html


INDEFINITE DELIVERY ARCHITECT-ENGINEER SERVICES CONTRACT FOR HTRW, PRIMARILY VARIOUS LOCATIONS, ALASKA AND PACIFIC RIM
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Alaska, JBER, Alaska.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4831, Solicitation W911KB-15-R-0014, 2015

The USACE HTRW program covers investigation, planning, and design for cleanup of hazardous, toxic, and radiological waste; debris; and other environmental contaminants at various locations in Alaska and the Pacific Rim. The selected A-E firm will have sufficient staff, flexibility, and capability to be available on an as-needed basis for tasks in all phases of environmental and HTRW management, investigation, and characterization. Interested firms should respond by submitting two SF 330s listing their qualifications in accordance with the instructions posted in the notice at FBO.gov. Submittals must be received by 2:00 PM Alaska Time, March 13, 2015. This requirement is a total small business set-aside, NAICS code 541330, size standard of $15M. More than one contract is anticipated, but no more than two contracts will be awarded, either concurrently or staggered at 2- to 6-month intervals. The contract(s) shall be indefinite-delivery, firm-fixed-price, with a contract limit of $5M over five years. The first contract award is anticipated for the 4th quarter of FY 2015. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA85/W911KB-15-R-0014/listing.html


ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIAL ACTION CONTRACT
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, NAVFAC Atlantic, Norfolk, VA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4829, Solicitation N6247014R9018, 2015

This presolicitation notice announces the Navy’s intention to post on or about March 4, 2015, an unrestricted, full and open competition under NAICS code 562910 (Environmental Remediation Services), size standard of 500 employees. The Government intends to award a cost-plus-award-fee, indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contract for one base year and four one-year option periods. The total maximum value for the contract is $95M. Work will be performed by the issuance of task orders for environmental remedial action services, primarily in support of site remediation in accordance with CERCLA in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia, and areas of Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, and Vieques. The solicitation will be issued in electronic format only, with an approximate response date of April 20, 2015. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DON/NAVFAC/N62470CON/N6247014R9018/listing.html


EPA REGION 1 EMERGENCY AND RAPID RESPONSE SERVICES (ERRS) IV
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Acquisition Management, Region I, Boston, MA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4830, Solicitation SOL-R1-14-00001, 2015

The purpose of this synopsis is to notify potential offerors of the intent by U.S. EPA Region 1 to issue a competitive small business set-aside solicitation to provide Emergency and Rapid Response Services (ERRS) for time-critical removals and rapid remedial actions within the EPA Region 1 geographic area, which includes the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Services will also include cleanup for incidents involving weapons of mass destruction; acts of terrorism; nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents; and natural or man-made disasters. It is the Government's intent to award a performance-based, indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contract consisting of a 36-month base period and a 24-month option period. The NAICS code for this acquisition is 562910, with a size standard of 500 employees. The synopsis, amendments, and other information related to the future procurement of Solicitation SOL-R1-14-00001 can be located through the search interface at https://www.fedconnect.net. Proposals also will be submitted through FedConnect. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/EPA/OAM/RegI/SOL-R1-14-00001/listing.html


SAD REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRACTS (ECAS)
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Savannah, GA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4799, Solicitation W912HN-14-R-0019, 2015

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, intends to advertise for the award of a Multiple Award Task Order Contract (MATOC) in a pool comprising up to six IDIQ-type contracts with a total capacity of $230M. The geographic areas to be served by these contracts will be all states within SAD (Alabama, Tennessee, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina), Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and Central America. This acquisition will be solicited and awarded on a competitive basis and will be set aside to economically disadvantaged small business participants in the 8(a) program. The applicable NAICS code is 562910, Remediation Services. Awarded contracts will consist of a 3-year base period and one 2-year option period. This solicitation will be issued in electronic format only and is anticipated to be available approximately in late February. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA21/W912HN-14-R-0019/listing.html


THE DALLES SPARE TRANSFORMER AREA RECOVERY
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Portland, OR.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4822, Solicitation W9127N-15-R-0006, 2015

The Dalles Dam requires the removal of the existing rain shelter, foundation, asphalt, and associated equipment at the Spare Transformer Location. The Government suspects that there is PCB-contaminated soil in the area due to an event in 2009. The contaminated soil is to be removed from the Spare Transformer Area and properly disposed of offsite in accordance with state and federal law. Part of the site was rehabbed under a previous contract. Magnitude of construction is $250,000 to $500,000. Additional information in the form of a formal RFP will be issued on or about February 26, 2015. This requirement is set aside for service-disabled, veteran-owned small business. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA57/W9127N-15-R-0006/listing.html



Cleanup News
NYSDEC ANNOUNCES RECLASSIFICATION OF SITE ON SUPERFUND REGISTRY; CERTIFIES CLEANUP REQUIREMENTS ACHIEVED AT STATE SUPERFUND SITE
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 3 pp, 2015

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has determined that the cleanup requirements to address contamination (fuel and PCE constituents) related to the 2350 Fifth Avenue site, New York, New York County, under the State Superfund program have been met. The cleanup activities were performed by the Responsible Party with state oversight. NYSDEC has approved a final engineering report and issued a Certificate of Completion for the site. Activities completed to achieve the remedial action objectives included (1) construction and operation of a sub-slab depressurization system throughout the existing site building; (2) construction and operation of a soil vapor extraction system beneath the northwestern portion of the building; (3) injection of a chemical oxidation reagent to treat the unsaturated soils, saturated soils, and groundwater at the site; and (4) installation of recovery wells to delineate and recover LNAPL and closure in-place of an underground storage tank. For the entire fact sheet, see http://www.dec.ny.gov/data/der/factsheet/231004coceng.pdf.

DESIGN AND FIELD-SCALE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN "ON SITE" BIOREMEDIATION TREATMENT IN PAH-POLLUTED SOIL
Pelaez, A.I., I. Lores, A. Sotres, C. Mendez-Garcia, C. Fernandez-Velarde, J.A. Santos, J.L.R. Gallego, and J. Sanchez. Environmental Pollution, Vol 181, 190-199, 2013

A bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil contaminated with PAHs, mainly naphthalene. After microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs, laboratory microcosms and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of bioremediation and to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of biostimulation was confirmed, bioremediation was undertaken in 900 m3 of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera.

ENGINEERING PAPER: IN SITU THERMAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: LESSONS LEARNED
U.S. EPA, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, 46 pp, 2014

The purpose of this paper is to convey lessons learned during roughly 10 years of development and deployment of in situ thermal treatment (ISTT) technologies. This paper is the result of a series of in-depth interviews with EPA Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and with ISTT vendors. Although the focus is on federally funded cleanup sites, many of the lessons learned will be of interest to RPMs and OSCs responsible for oversight of PRP-lead cleanups. http://clu-in.org/download/techdrct/istt_ll_issue_paper.pdf


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
PILOT-TEST OF THE CALCIUM SODIUM PHOSPHATE (CNP) PROCESS FOR THE STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF VARIOUS MERCURY-CONTAMINATED WASTES
Cho, J.H., Y. Eom, and T.G. Lee. Chemosphere, Vol 117, 374-381, 2014

A pilot-scale calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) plant was designed and manufactured to examine the performance of a recently developed stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Hg-contaminated waste samples generated from industrial processes in Korea were collected and treated using the pilot CNP plant. S/S samples were fabricated according to various operating conditions, including waste type, the dose of the stabilization reagent (Na2S), and the waste loading ratio. Although Hg leaching value and compressive strength decreased as the waste loading ratio increased, most of the S/S samples exhibited Hg leaching values that were below the universal treatment standard of 25 µg/L and compressive strengths that exceeded the criterion of 3.45 MPa.


DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS FOR SOURCE WATER
Lane, A.E., R.K. Peterson, M.R. Heinrichs, and P.J. Usinowicz.
IPEC 2014: 21st Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, 13-16 October 2014, Houston, Texas. 13 slides, 2014

DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory is funding a demonstration project to optimize Battelle's patented acid mine drainage (AMD) water treatment technology. The technology achieves >95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. This technology is particularly applicable in areas where mines discharge AMD and reuse of the drainage water for drilling activities is preferred over the use of fresh water (e.g., in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Colorado). http://ipec.utulsa.edu/Conf2014/Full_Manuscripts_Presentations_Speech/Heinrichs.pdf


PERSULFATE OXIDATION COUPLED WITH MICROBIAL SULFATE REDUCTION AS A COMBINED REMEDY
Shayan, Mahsa, Ph.D. thesis, University of Waterloo, ON, Canada. 174 pp, 2015

To assess the viability and performance of a persulfate/enhanced bioremediation (EBR) treatment train, a pilot-scale trial was conducted in a 24-m experimental gate at the University of Waterloo Groundwater Research Facility at CFB Borden over a period of 13 months. After a quasi steady-state plume of dissolved benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) was established in the gate, two persulfate injection episodes were conducted to create a chemical oxidation zone. A modeling tool was developed to simulate the coupled processes involved in a persulfate/EBR treatment train and to quantify the impact of various parameters on treatment performance. Multiple lines of evidence from the pilot confirmed that the persulfate/EBR treatment train achieved >70% BTX mass removal from the BTX plume. A less aggressive persulfate treatment step (i.e., lower dosage, duration, and extent) was found to improve overall treatment efficiency by minimizing the temporary inhibitory effect of persulfate application on microbial processes. https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/handle/10012/9106/Shayan_Moghadam_Mahsa.pdf?sequence=3



Research
REMEDIATION OF RDX IN GROUNDWATER: FACT SHEET
Clayton, B.A.
LA-UR-14-25840, 2 pp, 2014

Los Alamos National Laboratory is investigating legacy contamination of RDX in surface water and groundwater in Canyon de Valle and surrounding areas to develop a remediation strategy. In May 2014, the Laboratory's Environmental Programs Corrective Actions Program (CAP) began two interim measures tests to determine if RDX can be removed from perched groundwater zones and if a pumping system in the perched intermediate aquifer could alleviate the potential for the RDX plume to migrate farther into the deep regional aquifer. To characterize the geologic and hydrologic contours in the ground around the site, cables with electrodes were run along the ground throughout the area in June 2014, sending current into the ground to measure the resistance and conductivity of the underlying geological strata. This enabled investigators to determine the extent of perched intermediate groundwater in the contamination zone and decide where to drill additional monitoring and extraction wells. In a 60-day aquifer test, CAP also pumped out RDX-contaminated groundwater for treatment with activated carbon. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1148314 Related article: http://energy.gov/em/articles/removing-high-explosives-groundwater.


RECOVERY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND ACTIVITY DURING BIOREMEDIATION FOLLOWING CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOILS
Sutton, N.B., A.A.M. Langenhoff, D.H. Lasso, B. van der Zaan, P. van Gaans, F. Maphosa, H. Smidt, T. Grotenhuis, and H.H.M. Rijnaarts.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol 98 No 6, 2751-2764, 2014

A systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate on microbial diversity and activity during eight weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, as well as in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69% for peat (biotic control) and 59% for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partly explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance; however, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control.


ALTERNATIVE WASTE RESIDUE MATERIALS FOR PASSIVE IN SITU PREVENTION OF SULFIDE-MINE TAILINGS OXIDATION: A FIELD EVALUATION
Nason, P., R.H. Johnson, C. Neuschutz, L. Alakangas, and B. Ohlander.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 267, 245-254, 2014

Novel solutions for sulfide mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid-amended tailings over 2 years. Application of a 0.2 m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings; it merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20% while sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings/sludge interface. Addition of a fly-ash sealing layer (0.6 m thick) under the sewage sludge layer mitigated oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimized sulfide oxidation. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and trapped sludge-borne metals; however, sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite, which created an oxidized zone 0.3 m deep over a 6-year period. Results show that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for mitigating sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation. See P. Nason's 2013 Ph.D. thesis for additional information on this project: https://pure.ltu.se/portal/files/63685993/Peter_Nason.pdf.


TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR TAILINGS PHYTOSTABILIZATION: NATURE OF THE SUBSTRATES, AMENDMENT OPTIONS, AND ANTHROPOGENIC PEDOGENESIS
Lia, X. and L. Huang.
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 45 No 8, 813-839, 2015

Base metal tailings (BMTs) are normally sulfidic and contain high abundance of residue metals. While in situ phytostabilization has been proposed as a promising approach to stabilize surface tailings, few studies have reported success in constructing a sustainable plant community in BMTs, which suggests that a new paradigm involving a sophisticated understanding of the nature of BMTs is needed for successful BMT phytostabilization. Using a property database of BMTs investigated worldwide as a backdrop, this review explores how BMTs are different from normal soils and how these differences influence BMT phytostabilization strategies. BMTs are mineralogically and chemically different from natural soils, with unstable geochemistry and inherent extreme toxicity. Studies have documented that amendment options and soil development in BMT phytostabilization are constrained by these abiotic factors. The authors conclude that for successful BMT phytostabilization, extensive engineering efforts are required to increase the biocapacity of tailings (i.e., anthropogenic pedogenesis) versus a focus on the selection and establishment of plants.


GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF BRASSICA JUNCEA IN COPPER MINE TAILINGS AMENDED WITH TECHNOSOL AND COMPOST
Novo, L.A.B. and L. Gonzalez.
Scientific World Journal, Vol 2014, Article ID 506392, 9 pp, 2014

Interactions between Brassica juncea (mustard greens) and different tailings treatments were evaluated for their effect on plant germination and early growth. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% technosol and 30% compost. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% technosol and 30% compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, which suggests that technosol and compost may usefully support the germination and early growth of hardy B. juncea in mine tailings. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/506392/


EVALUATION OF TOXICITY TO THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA, AND TO THE MIDGE, CHIRONOMUS DILUTUS; AND BIOACCUMULATION BY THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, WITH EXPOSURE TO PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FROM ANNISTON, ALABAMA
Ingersoll, C.G., J.A. Steevens, and D.D. MacDonald, eds.
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5125, 136 pp, 2014

This report provides compiled information on the toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs and other chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments collected from the Anniston, Alabama, PCB site. Long-term reproduction toxicity tests were done with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests were done with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, exposed to sediments collected from the site. Results of these laboratory toxicity and bioaccumulation tests subsequently will be used as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the site. The goal of the initial study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in 32 sediment samples (6 test and 1 reference) collected from the site. Additional studies may be required to determine the spatial extent of sediment contamination and sediment toxicity or sediment bioaccumulation at the Anniston PCB site. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20135125


USE OF NATURAL AND APPLIED TRACERS TO GUIDE TARGETED REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN AN ACID MINE DRAINAGE SYSTEM, COLORADO ROCKIES, USA
Cowie, R., M.W. Williams, M. Wireman, and R.L. Runkel.
Water, Vol 6 No 4, 745-777, 2014

The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multilevel mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging acid mine drainage (AMD) to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream, with workings passing directly under the stream channel. To enable development of targeted remediation strategies, the hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings must be defined to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. To identify hydrologic connections, investigators employed a combination of natural and applied tracers, including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes showed a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicated a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years, not decades. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through the mine workings with minimal obstructions. Results from simultaneous salt and dye tracer application showed that both tracer types can be used successfully in AMD conditions. http://snobear.colorado.edu/Markw/Research/14_water.pdf


AN EVALUATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE DETECTION OF RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION AT READY-FOR-ANTICIPATED-USE SITES
Slonecker, E.T. and G.B. Fisher.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1197, 31 pp, 2014

Data collection and analysis at the study sites was hampered by operational problems with site access and information, XRF instrument operation, and imagery collection. Of the 24 sites imaged and analyzed, 17 appeared to be relatively clean with no discernible metal contamination, hydrocarbons, or asbestos in the soil. None of the samples for the sites in Louisiana had any result exceeding the appropriate industrial or residential standard for arsenic or lead. One site in South Carolina (North Street Dump) had two samples that exceeded the residential standard for lead. One site in Texas (Cadiz Street), and four sites in Florida (210 North 12th Street, Encore Retail Site, Clearwater Auto, and 22nd Street Mixed Use) were found to have some level of residual metal contamination above the applicable residential or commercial risk-based concentration standard. Three of the Florida sites showing metal contamination also exhibited a pattern of vegetation stress based on standard vegetation analysis techniques. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20141197


SUSTAINABLE WASTE ROCK REMEDIATION AND REVEGETATION: A REAL-WORLD LONGITUDINAL STUDY COMPARING VIROMINE TECHNOLOGY TO STANDARD APPLICATIONS AND DOING NOTHING
Barros, G. XIII Congreso Internacional: ExpoMin 2014, Santiago, Chile. 23 slides, 2014

A waste rock remediation program was conducted at a gold mine in New South Wales (NSW) over a 6-year period. The treatment of waste rock dumps included the longitudinal results of one-off applications using (1) application of Terra B, a benign, clay-like chemical reagent derived from processed bauxite and other sources; (2) lime and biosolids (added for nutrient value); (3) clay capping and topsoil; and (4) an untreated control for comparison with treatment outcomes. Parameters measured in the program included leachate pH, total actual acidity and chromium reducible sulfur, Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and tree height and vegetative cover density. Data were collected at regular intervals. Findings over the 6-year life of the study indicated that leachate pH in the control area was 4.5 in year 1, falling to 4.0 by year 6; pH in the lime and capping treated waste rock increased initially to ~5.5 after treatment but fell to 5.0 within 24 months and remained a low 4.7 by year 6; pH in the Terra B waste rock was 6.8 in year one immediately after treatment and increased to 7.3 by year 6 without further treatment. Tree height and vegetative cover density indicated that with increasing acidity in the waste rock dump, the lime and capping options did not support healthy revegetation, but tree growth and density in the Terra B treated areas were comparable to background, undisturbed forest levels. http://www.asq.cl/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ExpoMin-Chile-Presentation-2014.pdf


A LONG-TERM STUDY OF MINE SITE CONTAMINATION AND REHABILITATION IN AUSTRALIA
Fergusson, L.C. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol 11 No 4, 1-17, 2014

This paper presents a multi-part treatment and revegetation program conducted at a derelict metaliferous mine site in Australia from 2000-2013. One part of the study assessed lime and biosolids-amended waste rock, a standard clay-topsoil capping of waste rock, and the addition of Terra B reagent to waste rock compared to a control. Results showed soil pH in the control remained unchanged from years 1-14 at around 4.0, while soil pH in the limed and capped areas initially increased but declined to starting levels of around 4.0 within 12 months and remained low for 14 years. In contrast, soil pH in the Terra B-treated area was 6.8 immediately after treatment, increased to 7.2 in year 6, and rose to 8.7 by year 14 without further treatment; these findings were consistent for data on total actual acidity and total potential acidity. Similarly, leachable metals generally were lower in the Terra B area than either the control or other treatment areas. Tree height and density measured in 2005 and again in 2013 indicated that acidity in the control, limed, and capped areas suppressed tree height and density. By 2013 in the Terra B area, however, revegetation was comparable to undisturbed, remnant forest. http://www.academia.edu/10472978/A_Long-Term_Study_of_Mine_Site_Rehabilitation_in_Australia


REDUCTION OF RISK FOR HUMAN AND ECOSYSTEMS IN MINE TAILING PROPERTIES
Faz, A., J.A. Acosta, D.M. Carmona, S. Kabas, S. Martinez-Martinez, and R. Zornoza.
Industrial Safety and Life Cycle Engineering, Chapter 18:375-404, 2013

This chapter presents an effective methodology for improving soil fertility and reducing the environmental risks of mine site tailing ponds using organic and inorganic amendments and phytostabilization. The work was conducted at two areas affected by mining activities: the El Lirio and El Gorguel tailing ponds in the Mining District of Cartagena-La Union, SE Spain. Two types of waste materials—marble waste and pig slurry, which are generated in huge quantities in the region—were used alone and in different combinations as amendments in a large-scale plot experiment. Results are discussed, followed by concepts for landscape design applications of this technique in tailing ponds. http://www.vce.at/iris/pdf/irisbook/iris_chapter18.pdf


HIGH-RESOLUTION DELINEATION OF CHLORINATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN A DIPPING, FRACTURED MUDSTONE: DEPTH- AND STRATA-DEPENDENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY FROM ROCK-CORE SAMPLING
Goode, D.J., T.E. Imbrigiotta, and P.J. Lacombe.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Vol 171, 1-11, 2014

Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated VOC (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs (TCE and daughter products) in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of TCE at the former Naval Air Warfare Center from 1953 to 1995 resulted in TCE DNAPL and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from the deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection, although high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.
Longer abstract: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70132466
Slides: http://toxics.usgs.gov/ps_meeting/pdfs/Goode_PtSourceMtg3wc2.pdf



General News
DECISION MAKING AT CONTAMINATED SITES: ISSUES AND OPTIONS IN HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), Risk Assessment Team.
RISK-3, 203 pp, 2015

This document addresses five areas associated with conducting and reviewing risk assessments for the cleanup of contaminated sites: planning, data evaluation, toxicity, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication are considered as integral parts of the same decision process; consequently, risk management and risk communication are addressed as they relate to risk assessment. The document identifies key issues, options, and additional helpful resources for each of the five topic areas. This report is available in both Web-based and PDF file formats at http://www.itrcweb.org/risk-3.


BIODEGRADATION AND BIOREMEDIATION OF OILED BEACHES: A PRIMER FOR PLANNERS AND MANAGERS
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. API Technical Report 1147, 66 pp, 2014

This document is a primer on oil biodegradation and bioremediation. It is intended to provide planners and managers responding to oil spills with sufficient information to decide if natural biodegradation is occurring and whether bioremediation should be used as a response technology. This document is designed to allow responders to communicate effectively with bioremediation experts, concerned citizens, and public officials. The text is not intended to provide an extensive literature review but rather is a simple document that identifies general bounds for actions. http://www.oilspillprevention.org/~/media/oil-spill-prevention/spillprevention/r-and-d/shoreline-protection/biodegradation-bioremediation-on-sand-be.pdf


SUBSURFACE OIL DETECTION AND DELINEATION IN SHORELINE SEDIMENTS, PHASE 2: FINAL REPORT
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. API Technical Report 1149-2A, 34 pp, 2014

A survey of subsurface oil detection and delineation techniques has generated a set of recommendations for studies or activities that have a high probability of success and that could significantly advance this capability at low cost and in a relatively short (1- to 2-year) time frame. Existing proven technologies have the potential to provide continuous or near-continuous detection capabilities that are rapid, accurate, and applicable for a range of shoreline, riverbank, and terrestrial environments. To a large degree, these proven tactics (a) are poorly understood beyond the teams that currently use them and (b) have not been systematically field-tested to provide proof of concept. This report presents recommendations for the development and testing of emerging but technically proven technologies that have demonstrated their potential application to subsurface shoreline, riverbank, and terrestrial oiling issues. http://www.oilspillprevention.org/%7E/media/Oil-Spill-Prevention/spillprevention/r-and-d/shoreline-protection/1149-2a-subsurface-oil-detection-guide.pdf
Also in this API series, see Improvements for the Mechanized Cleanup of Oiled Sand Beaches at http://environmentalunit.com/Documentation/05%20Response%20Techniques/Shoreline/API%20Mechanized%20cleanup%20report.pdf.



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